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Certification

EWIS High Voltage Certification

With the gradual industry implementation of high voltage EWIS systems in aviation, the demand for HV-specific safety standards is rapidly growing. High voltage OEMs currently use available industry standards, as applicable, but are still left with the task of developing and justifying their own system requirements. The SAE’s AS50881 standard, often considered the ‘go-to’ standard for OEMs, could benefit from proposed updates made to address the gaps for high voltage systems. Read more

Life-Limiting High Voltage Parts

Life-Limited EWIS parts can be useful where high voltage conditions make component degradation rates uncertain. Though accelerated aging can offer insight to the component’s condition, further observations of high-voltage systems will be needed for accurate degradation predictions. Read more

Risk Assessment and Small Aircraft Certification

The basic idea behind the F3230 is to limit the total number of assessments to those that are of particular concern for aircraft safety. This aligns with the change of part 23 aircraft the FAA has implemented for a more performance-based certification approach versus the detailed and prescriptive approach that the FAA used prior to 2016. Read more

Verification and Validation

Amidst the manufacturing process, a structured system of quality assurance is of utmost importance; implementation of a standardized evaluation system is key to ensuring that whatever is being made is up par for its certain usage. In the world of technology and manufacturing, the evaluative journey of a product from start to finish is broken up into multiple segments.

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Electric Aircraft Design Considerations

Electrical energy storage has reached a point where it is possible for the manned vehicle propulsion to use non-petroleum based energy. To achieve this goal, it has required a lot of research, design, and innovation that has pushed these vehicles to depend on high voltage electrical power systems and forego the use of hydraulics and pneumatics. If electrical aircraft are the aircraft of the future, what are the design factors that the EWIS community will have to address? Read more

AS4372 – Building a Wire/Cable Specification

While it is possible to start from scratch and develop an independent set of tests and performance requirements, there are existing standards that can be used to expedite the process. Read more

EWIS Physical Hazard Assessment

Aircraft system safety assessments are not a new concept. These safety assessments have a defined process for evaluating an aircraft which involve identifying its failure modes, top-level events, and eventual means to achieve an unsafe condition. Documents such as the SAE ARP4761 provide guidelines and methods for conducting the safety assessment process on civil airborne systems and equipment.

To follow the typical development cycle, the aircraft failure hazard assessment (FHA) is followed by the system failure hazard assessment and performed in parallel with the preliminary system safety assessments (PSSAs). This then evolves into the system safety assessments (SSA) and common cause analyses (CCAs). For those with a systems reliability background, this should all be second nature. For the rest of the community, these are often terms that we come across because of our work in this field.

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Wires and Fuel Compatibility

Whether by design or by accident, some wires in an aircraft will be exposed to jet fuel. Because of this, it is necessary to be prepared and select wires/cable types that will not suffer adverse effects of the exposure. Considering the impact of fuel on wiring is not idle musing about wiring systems; to quote the FAA AC120-97A, “Since 1959, there have been 18 fuel tank explosions on transport category airplanes”. Read more

Principles of EWIS System Safety (25.1709)

Of the regulations encapsulating the 25.17XX EWIS group, none is more complicated than 25.1709. This regulation, consisting of only 31 words, can be the result of thousands of hours of labor, hundreds of pages of documentation, and requiring inputs from just about every system group working on the vehicle. If you step back from the regulation and ask, “What is necessary to show compliance?” it comes down to several factors. Here, we review some of the basic principles of 25.1709, where it impacts and interacts with other systems in the vehicle. Read more

Have we Reached the End of Aging Aircraft Wiring Systems? – Part II

At the start of the last article, the question was posed, “Is it possible that aircraft wiring reached a point where aging/degradation is a thing of the past?” In that article, four elements were identified that must be satisfied for wires/cables to be considered as age-free. The insulation and conductor aging factors were examined in the last article, and here we consider the remaining two: Design limits and random shocks. Read more